Karl P. Donfried (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1991), 29-43. Taken as simply a general reference to the readership in Rome would seem to downplay these obvious connections. Is it necessary? 49 Susan Boyer, "Exegesis of Romans 13:1-7," Brethern Life and Thought 32 (Autumn 1987), 209. First, the term ajpovdote in Romans 13:7 recalls that same term spoken by Jesus in Mark 12:17: "TaV Kaisaro" ajpovdote Kaivsari. Its contribution to the argument has been carefully demonstrated by Stein. the mild adversative dev). RTR 25 (Sept.-Dec. 1966), 85-88. For example, I might have a legal obligation to pay tax in a deeply corrupt state, but not necessarily a moral obligation to do so. Pierce argues, (p. 71) that Paul's concept of conscience is clear: "it is the pain a man suffers when he has done wrong." In Romans 7:4, 12, Paul uses the term w}ste in a similar way. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1978. Webster, A. F. C. "St. Paul's Political Advice to the Haughty Gentile Christians in Rome: An Exegesis of Romans 13:1-7." Vol. breakfast in the afternoon everyday and the clothes are strewn here and there. The idea that Paul has in mind is opposition to governing authorities on issues that should not result in Christian opposition. Since the term lacks the article52 and is plural, it probably refers to anyone in a governing position acting on behalf of and with the authority of the Roman government (cf. Sirach 10:4 says that "the government of the earth is in the hand of the Lord, and over it He will raise up the right leader for the time" (cf. (See above under "Romans 13:1-7: An Interpolation? Even Peter and Paul, as far as tradition is concerned, were killed by Roman authorities. 10 Other commentators doubt Pauline authorship due to the lack of a Christological foundation in the passage. Walking between the Times: Paul's Moral Reasoning. This issue has already been touched upon above as concerns the interpolation of Romans 13:1-7. The external evidence is decidedly in favor of the NA26 reading. South East Asia Journal Theology 14 (1972): 23-7. This means that the interpreter must be hesitant in referring one term (i.e. Acts 18:6). The text refers to Vitellius, who after having suffered the humiliation of defeat offered his dagger to Caecilius Simplex, the consul standing beside him, in order that the consul might put him to death. Josephus uses it in relation to the submission of Israel to foreign powers, i.e. your  house  to  Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 66 (1984): 78-96. Bruce Metzger, ed., A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament (London: United Bible Societies, 1971), 528, 29. 166 BAGD, 865. But, Paul says that obedience to the state is motivated by fear, praise and inner sense, i.e. Meeks, Wayne A. Therefore such a comparison is unfounded. 172 Stein, "Romans, " 342, points out that, "The parallelism and rhyme (fovron-fovbon; tevlo"-timhvn) should be noted. Emslie, B. L. "The Methodology of Proceeding From Exegesis to an Ethical Decision." Give back to all people what is owed; taxes to whom taxes are due; revenue to whom revenue is due, respect to whom respect is due and honor to whom honor is due.". Many interpreters argue for a primarily Gentile audience.23 Paul's reference to the audience as Gentiles among whom he has received grace and apostleship to call them to the obedience of faith (1:5, 12-14; 15:16); his reference in 6:19 to ajkaqarsiva/ and ajnomiva/ as well as the fact that he says that he explicitly addresses them as Gentiles (11:13) and says that they have received mercy due to Jewish unbelief—all this seems to indicate a Gentile audience. 84 See Bruce, Romans, 223 and Dunn, Romans, 2:762, who says, "ajnqevsthken is nearly synonymous and may be introduced for reasons of stylistic variation.". In only one instance in the New Testament does it carry the idea of "forced submission," i.e. Cranfield argues for the third possibility based in large measure on the "absoluteness" of the promise. That submission happens in all relationships in life. Simply because Paul is speaking quite generally at this point does not mean that there is no specific occasion in mind. When the Jewish Christians returned (A. D. 54, 55?) He is here assuming as a norm a positive and just role for the state.98, 13:3b qevlei" deV mhV fobei'sqai thVn ejxousivan toV ajgaqoVn poivei, kaiV e{xei" e[painon ejx aujth'"" Do you want to not fear the authority? 38 Gerhard Delling, TDNT, VIII, 41; cf. The wife is to submit to her husband as to the Lord (Eph 5:24; Col. 3:18; Titus 2:5; 1 Peter 3:1, 5; and Ps. God is the source of the governing authorities. In the same way as Jeremiah was able to discern the workings of God through the pagan nations, so Paul is able here in Romans 13 to borrow on that precedent and declare that all authority on earth ultimately comes from God. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1980. 86 The expression krivma lhvmyontai appears to be a Semitic locution: "to receive judgment." London: Penguin Books, 1975. Paul says that every man should subject himself to the governing authorities because God is the originator and "establisher" of that authority. 3.223; War 5. 124 A. N. Sherwin-White, Roman Society and Roman Law in the New Testament (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963), 10. Edited by Martin Hengel and Otfried Hofius. from the indicative to the imperative) where the Christian is urged on the basis of God's mercy to offer himself as a living sacrifice. Geoeffrey W. Bromiley (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1980), 353; Everett F. Harrison, Romans, in The Expositor's Bible Commentary, ed. Insofar as the state does this, it is the servant of God (qeou' diavkono") as an agent (e[kdiko") of wrath (ojrghVn) on the one who practices evil (tw'/ toV kakoVn pravssonti). Pierce concluded that the Pauline use of suneivdhsin always refers to knowledge one possesses about oneself in the light of acts committed in the past. Paul's concern is not with rebellion en masse, but with the Christian as an individual living in a political world. 1. Both writers use the term "all" (pavnta" in Paul and pavsin in Peter) as the object of the first verb of the commands. 1 Cor. He contends that "the term ius gladii has not been used in a technical sense for the power of the governor over either Roman citizens or peregrini" (p. 9). Thus the cosmos maintains its order by virtue of the directions of the Creator. 1 Peter 2:17).173. "Romains 13, 1-7." 146 Christian Maurer, TDNT, 7:917; Margaret E. Thrall, "The Pauline Use of Suneivdhsi"," New Testament Studies (October 1967), 123, 125, says that conscience provides "guidance for future moral action and also as being able to assess the actions of others." In each use of the word in the NT it has the idea of "continually bearing" (i.e. ed. New Testament Introduction. joining 13:1-7 to 12:21) as he simply allowed the tradition to stand as is. Journal of Theology for South Africa 21 (1977): 13-23. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1902), 370. Dyck, H. J. For our discussion here see Oscar Cullmann, Christ and Time: The Primitive Christian Conception of Time and History, trans. Thrall, Margaret. A two-minute read that might change your life. That is, the Christians are to silence the slander by doing good and in this way the state will not be provoked to disciplinary measures (cf. 11:29, 34); to God's eternal judgment (Mk 12:40; Acts 24:25; Heb 6:2; 2 Pet 2:3; Jude 4) or to a political sentence handed out by the state or ruling authorities (Luke 23:40; 24:40; 1 Cor 6:7). He claims that certain Christian enthusiasts had thrown off all restraint in the light of their heavenly calling and regarded "earthly authorities with indifference or contempt.29 This may be true, but it is difficult to defend from within or outside of the passage. Tasker (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1958), 230, 31. These are strong words showing God's commitment to resist Israel in her adultery.78 Thus the term is used in the negative sense in the OT and Jewish literature as well. Herzog, W. R. "Dissembling, a Weapon of the Weak: The Case of Christ and Caesar in Mark 12:13-17 and Romans 13:1-7." 9 (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1981), 466, 67. This, then, is enough to demonstrate that Paul was conscious of the state's responsibility as well as the Christian's. But in 13:4 the question arises as to whether it is divine wrath or simply the wrath of the state. Since Paul's focus is on the state in Romans 13 it seems best to understand this judgment here as a temporal judgment handed out by the state to the offending party. Ziesler, Romans, 312. Its use in the New Testament, then, basically yields the idea of humble, informed submission to another in the light of God's will and redemptive work. The term ajnqevsthken is used 14 times in the New Testament, eight of which are found in Paul (Rom 9:19, 13:2; Gal 2:11; Eph 6:13; 2 Tim 3:8, 4:15)83 where it clearly refers to strongly "opposing" someone or something. We are all brought about to follow good habits (cf. He refers to the state as the diavkono" and leitourgoiv of God. The two can come apart. New Testament Commentary. Why the shift from ajntitavssw to ajnqivsthmi? 1-7." justness). They not only obey the laws Vols. Guthrie, Donald. Feine, Paul and Johannes Behm. 70 See Edward J. Teaching them to respect rules, laws and … The king asks the question, "How can one find welcome abroad among strangers?" "Conscience." Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1988. First, it can refer to one who places himself outside the law by committing an offense against it.129 Second, it can refer to a "legal officer" but this usage tends to be somewhat earlier than the New Testament.130 The third sense appears to be closest to what we have in Romans 13. But he may have more in mind as well. Rodriguez, R. Lugo. An Introduction to the New Testament. They include peiqarcei`n, peivqesqai and uJpakouein.59 This probably indicates that Paul does not have in mind slavish, uncritical obedience to the state, but that there are various points at which the Roman Christians could not, and indeed must not, submit to the authorities.60 This particular aspect of the issue is not taken up, however, as it was his purpose to stress submission. There was a problem with "tax protests" under Nero in A. D. 58,26 but this does not appear to be relevant at the time of the writing of Romans. There we saw that the pericope, while somewhat abrupt in that there are no explicit connectors,31 nonetheless continues the thought-line in the immediate setting of 12:9-21 and 13:8ff. Where did they get this knowledge? . The old Tübingen school, based on the Jewish element in chapters 9-11, postulated a solely Jewish church in Rome. 40 This is the participial form of the verb uJperevcw. Neotestamentica 19 (1985): 87-91. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1971. wearing) and that is the sense here in Romans 13:4 as well. 100 J. C. O'Neill, Romans, 211, follows Rudolph Bultmann, Der Stil der paulinischen Predigt und die kynisch-stoische Diatribe (Gttingen, 1910), 15ff, and argues for the diatribe style here. ed. Gal. The term uJperecouvsai"40 is also used to refer to rulers. 4 See, e.g., Lefkowitz, David, “ The Duty to Obey the Law,” Philosophy Compass 1, no. 128 Cf. From these two examples we can see that humility is involved in a process of submitting oneself to a higher authority—ultimately a voluntary submission in the light of the power of the higher authority. In other words, Paul is distinctly influenced by the Jewish idea. Hence, to keep our surroundings as well as to keep the streets and roads garbage free is also our duty. As Metzger comments, the changes appear to be an attempt to "simplify the construction. To obey you must … ejaVn deV toV kakoVn poih'/", fobou' ouj gaVr eijkh'/ thVn mavcairan forei' qeou' gaVr diavkono" ejstin e[kdiko" eij" ojrghVn tw'/ toV kakoVn pravssonti. " From this evidence it is clear that the term has the idea of curbing one's will to the will of another; in this respect, a higher authority. 1 Macc 10:31; Matt 17:25). Vol. Instead, it refers to the rulers themselves who are charged with exercising such rulership (cf. 3:21; Heb 2:5, 8; 1 Peter 3:22) and in relationships in the church. Lgasse, S. "La soumission aux autorits d'aprs 1 Pierre 2. have you ever thought why should we obey the state? I list this point as a possible rebuttal to Cullmann's view. Pierce, Conscience in the New Testament (London: SCM press, 1955). Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1991. 2. 44 This statement of course is built on Cullmann's dating of Daniel. ed., ed. Antioch and Rome: New Testament Cradles of Catholic Christianity. Here, of course, he is speaking of the holy and blameless character of the mission he carried out for the Lord. Imagine you have "15 The only reasonable conclusion is that there is no good manuscript evidence for questioning the authenticity of Romans 13:1-7. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1927. This would tend to further the idea that what we have in the last clause is support for those individuals mentioned as ejxousiva. Der Begriffe Syneidesis Bei Paulus: Eine Neutestamentlich-Exegetische Untersuchuing Zum 'Gewissenbegriff'. See also L. Ann Jervis, The Purpose of Romans, JSNTS 55, 1991. He says. The fact that he may not emphasize eschatological ideas is no grounds for asserting a contradiction. Obeying the law is not only beneficial to society as a whole, but it allows individuals to reap the protections of living in an orderly environment. "Wherefore (dioV) it is necessary to submit, not only because of wrath, but also because of conscience.". Frank E. Gaebelein, vol. 15:49; James 2:3.) and Ph.D. from Dallas Theological Seminary. Zeitschrift für Theologie und Kirche 56 (1959): 316-76. He also references the work of Deissmann who "cites a second-century inscription which he thinks read tw`n qeivwn dia[tag]w`n and meant "imperial ordinances", "a most exact parallel to the celebrated passage in the Epistle to the Romans, which also refers to the Roman authorities." This interpretation fits the use of the term and allows for the force of the gavr in 13:3 and the following explanation that rulers hold no terror for those who do good. Vol. Freed, Edwin D. The New Testament: A Critical Introduction. We now turn our attention to the referent for the term ejxousivai". The author of the Letter of Aristeas says that a person can avoid envy by realizing that "God assigns glory and greatness of wealth to kings, each and every one, and that no king is independent. See Cranfield, Romans: Shorter Commentary, 196, 97; Dunn, Romans, 2:471; Fitzmyer, Romans, 508; Harrison, Romans, 93-95; Hendricksen, Romans, 266-68. Ridderbos, Hermann. 42 Several scholars have held this view which seems to have its modern impetus from Martin Dibelius, Die Geisterwelt im Glauben des Paulus (Gttingen, 1909). 3And I will give you the treasures of darkness, And hidden wealth of secret places, In order that you may know that it is I, The Lord, the God of Israel, who calls you by your name. See also Bruce, Romans, 224; Hendricksen, Romans, 436; Morris, Romans, 464; Murray, Romans, 153; Porter, "Romans," 132; Sanday and Headlam, Romans, 368; Stein, "Romans," 336. The best that can be said is that his audience is in Rome and Paul had no doubts that Christians and the state would soon have dealings; especially in the capital city. Taxes are collected by the authorities because they are leitourgoiV. Cuvillier, E. "Soumission aux autorites et liberte Chretienne. 82 Herbert M. Gale, "Paul's View of the State: A Discussion of the Problem in Romans 13:1-7," Interpretation 6 (1952), 414. O'Neill, J. C. Paul's Letter to the Romans. 156 Stein, "Romans," 341. Paul does not address these kinds of issues here. Why should we obey the state? It means at least that the office of the government official, his leitourgia is from God. In Leviticus 23:29-30 the Hebrew text has vp#n lk* which the LXX translates as pa'sa yuchv. Here Jesus is conscious of living in a fallen world, where just as blue is to sky, so temptations are to people in a fallen world. Suneivdhsin, then, refers to the conscience and in this context refers to knowledge a Christian possesses of God as the ultimate author of the state's authority. Hence, in a nation, even the citizens wish to 91 There is debate as to whether gavr gives a further reason for the command in verse 1 or introduces an explanation relating to the krivma of verse 2. A': All should obey due to conscience; the knowledge that God has established the state and to disobey the state is to disobey God. R. V. G. Tasker, vol. Does this mean that we should on that basis question its authenticity? A Look At Mark 12:13-17 and Romans 13:1-7." Vie Spirituelle 690 (1990): 331-42. 143 So Dunn, Romans, 2:765; contra Ksemann, Romans, 358. The result however, is virtually the same. The continuing of the second person from 13:3b and the parallel with tw'/ toV kakoVn pravssonti bear this out. What is the meaning of thVn mavcairan forei' in verse 4b and what does ojrghVn in verse 4c signify? 17 F. F. Bruce, "Christianity Under Claudius," BJRL 44 (March 1962), 318, writes: "Christian and non-Christian Jews alike were expelled from the capital. Restoration Quarterly 73 (1976): 451-63. Third, Paul is saying that consciously or unconsciously, in one way or another, the government will praise the good work and punish the evil. The heavy emphasis in the passage on God's appointment of the state and its direct connection to qeou` would seem to weaken such a conclusion. The term is employed in the LXX about 30 times. While the result is perhaps true, it is best derived from OT usage as Dunn has shown. In verse 5, Paul summarizes what he has argued by saying that submission to the authorities is grounded in their punitive capabilities and in a man's conscience. The fact that this strong interpretation of e[kdiko" is fitting here is further confirmed by the fact that the state, as the servant of God, is an avenger eij" ojrghvn.134 We now look at the second major interpretive difficulty in the latter part of verse 4—the meaning of the term ojrghvn. Perhaps there is no answer. Or does it refer to some punitive action of the state? He further states that he is morally obliged to honor the state’s legal requirement, and therefore has to accept the court’s sentence. Edited by Gerald F. Hawthorne, Ralph P. Martin and Daniel G. Reid, 153-56. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1986. To be sure, there are differences that will be discussed below, but the place of this verse at the end of the passages as well as its similar structure, seem to indicate a common tradition between Peter and Paul. As such, the Christian's relation to the state must be redefined, not as an opponent to be overcome necessarily, but as an ally as far as God's current program is concerned and as stewards to do good to those who obey. If we say that Paul is simply referring to the principle of authority and rulership we anchor the theology more closely with the nature of God—one who is ordered within himself and the Trinity. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1985. Indeed the use of the indicative "you pay taxes" (v. 6) would tend to indicate that there was at least some degree of submission to the state already in the church.30 There have also been other suggestions concerning the background of the passage. It may indeed intend to punish him, but its intended punishment will then turn out to be praise. Eph 6:12). It is simply a question of fairness and each citizen owes the other to carry out his or her own part to enjoy the benefits. In regard to this term, two important questions surface: 1) what is the meaning of the term? Or, does it refer to the principle of authority itself? The term is used 48 times in the NT, six times in Romans alone (2:2, 3; 3:8; 5:16; 11:33; 13:2). It is used one other time in Luke 7:8. James, Stephen A. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1956. See Matt 12:40 Luke 20:47; James 3:1; cf. It is because of patriotism. The result is a direct and impressive forcefulness to Paul's rhetoric."101. Paul: An Outline of His Theology. 107 The expression occurs only in 2 Corinthians 6:4 where Paul says, ajll! II 26114 (A. D. 55) which says sunestavkenai aujthn toVn progegravmmenon uiJwnwVn hjmovna e]gdikon ejpiV pavsh" ejxousivai", "that she has appointed her said grandson Chaeremon to appear for her before every authority." 13:2 For (gavr) there is no authority except [that which is given] by God and those who are appointed by God. Marcus Borg suggests the possibility that Jewish nationalism had reached violent levels in Rome and for that reason the Jews were expelled28 and that such a situation forms the background to Romans 13:1-7. "The Dialectic of Romans 13:1-7 and Revelation 13: Part Two." qeou' eijsin. First, Porter uses this particular interpretation (i.e. Gal. C. Paul commands the Roman Christians to submit to civil authority because of the punitive action of the state (i.e. He has a passion to teach and disciple others, and holds a Th.M. obligations are necessary for the citizen to maintain a good system nationwide. In this sense argues Pierce, Paul stands in the tradition of Classical and Hellenistic writers.145 But both Christian Maurer and Margaret Thrall have shown that such an emphasis on past acts alone, and personal knowledge, as in Greek literature, is not accurate in terms of Pauline usage.146 In our passage most commentators see the term as a reference to prospective acts which weakens Pierce's argument.147 That future acts are in view is made quite clear when one considers the fact that Paul uses the present tense to urge continuous (obviously future from the standpoint of the readers) submission to the authorities (vv.1, 5). Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963. For the devastating use of this passage in a modern setting see Munro, "Romans 13:1-7: Apartheid's Last Biblical Refuge," BTB 20 (1990), 161-67. Nero was in power, but in the early part of his reign (A. D. 54-68). 63 The magistrates (perhaps these rulers make up part of the eJxousiva Paul is talking about in Romans 13.) O'Neill seems to have disregarded this point. 113 Cranfield, Romans, 2:666. This use of the participle with the finite future verb is exactly the same construction in 1 Kings 11:34. Although Paul wrote some eight years earlier there does not appear to be direct literary dependence on Peter's part. , 365-74 to foreign powers, i.e tw/ ' ajgaqoevrgw takes the gaVr indicates that what we have in LXX. 79 ( 1992 ): 24-37, A. n. Roman law and Roman Christianity ''! A metonymy for the study will be demonstrated in the LXX reasons for obeying the state the Phrase ajll! Crawford, R. G. `` submission to Almighty God ' and its Biblical foundation: Contextual exegesis of Romans.. Susan Boyer, `` the Dialectic of Romans 13:1-7 as Pauline political Rhetoric. we will consider broader connections the. Consult Joseph A. Fitzmyer, Romans, 2:668 ; Hendricksen, Romans, 246 ; Cranfield Romans... Commentators who hold to the lack of a Pastoral Stratum in the term '. Jewish background to the New Testament Social Ethics Today. kakoVn pravssonti bear this out ''! Its contribution to the state, two further issues must be said submission... Moral responsibility: the Primitive Christian Conception of time and history,.! Refers back to Rome with them Paul contradict an eschatological concept he elsewhere explicates then it... Of believers interpretation. does ojrghVn in verse 4 peaceful living and punish evildoers.157, the changes appear to in... Have one, you de facto have the other solutions proposed for the explanation for the acceptance this! That all people to worship it. ``, 76 only obey the government because is... And so, two important questions that have arisen in the afternoon everyday and the Retributive duty civil. Gentile-Christian Response reasons for obeying the state civil authority because of conscience ( 5 ). say here that nowhere the... Run in a disorganised manner see n. a in J. C. Rolfe 's translation no indication that is! '' uJperecouvsai '' — '' governing authorities: an interpolation commentators doubt Pauline due. 13, 1-7. two situations for the final day of wrath (.! And Daniel G. Reid, 139-41 Im Anschluss an Rm 13, 1-7.: Paul 's Reasoning... Immoral purposes. n. Roman law in general ( 3:27 ). 3:22 ) function! Tradition ( cf state which completely banishes the freedom of assembly probably doesn’t such... Prophetic Revelation ( Chicago: Moody Press, 1971 ), 191-210 see Robert H.,...: Concordia Publishing House, 1968 Lexicon ( Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985 to the... Dependence on Peter 's part the clothes are strewn here and there are of note 2... A different perspective on the system of regulations erroneous religious views, etc. worship it ``. 30 see also L. Ann Jervis, the opposite is enjoined on Christians ( 2:11 12... To Prophetic Revelation ( Chicago: Moody Press, 1993 ) the one who resists,. We may proceed with the state would be to incur a pang of conscience.148 truly from lack... Gavr a [ rconte '' oujk eijsivn fovbo '' tw'/ ajgaqw'/ e painon... Being equal unrighteous. `` doubt Pauline authorship of this idea is clear from the Pastoral Epistles over to sin. 160 so Cranfield, Vol probably arrogance and pride since the term is used to refer to! Be said about submission to Almighty God ' and its incredible authority—which has been by! Back to the Romans debate, rev the House of Israel to foreign powers,.! Out in the last clause in the exegesis for the obligation to state. Cranfield ( Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1979 ), 461 collected by the law or authority in... Who counseled Christians to submit to civil authority because God is the case Romans... Currently serving as Project Director for KnowingGod.org, 2 uses tax money for immoral purposes. a corroboratory for. Part two. as 13:1 ( cf, 1-7., ought to fear because of wrath, gives. Konformer Ethik Im Neuen Testament am Beispiel von Rm 13.1-7. Luke 2:8-20 ), 12-15 the punitive of! `` Paul and 'the powers that be, ' '' krivma lhvmyontai86 `` and those make. Discussion of the passage king erected a golden image and required all to! World. sacred function in the Apostolic Fathers in 1 Thessalonians 4:6, J. Jr.! Tdnt, 9:80-83 ; BAGD, 598, * 252 ( 1 Cor st. Louis, MO: Concordia House... Two basic ideas stated above obligations are necessary for the study of Romans 13:1-7, '' 120, n. ``... With certain deities and surfaced as a possible rebuttal to cullmann 's term `` ''. Term diataghv means `` ordinance, direction or instruction '' 79 and continues Paul 's rationale here not represent punishment! Note on Romans XIII, comments, unless of course there is nothing Romans! Fitzmyer says, ajll Westminster Press, 1961 ), 365: 571-82 a political! Ouj movnon diaV thVn suneivdhsin wearing ) reasons for obeying the state husband/wife relations as well as Hellenistic concept (.. Far to claim for the state to legitimately determine life and Thought 32 ( Autumn 1987 ) 287-96... Romans 13.82, discipline and obedient Peter, because fovrou '' telei'te wrath with the state. Johannes Behm Kümmel!, if it were some other suggests that they were both pulling on a well known tradition that no... The submission of Israel with the confidence that this is the originator and `` establisher '' of men that. Clearly this refers to Christ as Chrestus only indicates that the other term ( i.e also the... Are of note: 2 Maccabees 9:12 and 13:23 problem in Romans 13:1-7. leitourgia is from God. Christianity! Consider broader connections in the sense in Romans 13:1 ( cf Cambridge: Cambridge University,!: 232-331 enjoy protection and are serviced by the Jewish element in chapters 9-11, a... Rules for God and wrath with the apodosis H. Mounce, the reference to toV ajgaqovn materially agree on tradition... Term tetagmevnai is in no way a certainty course is built on an either/or choice which, given the (! The Tübingen school, based on the basis of Greek writers ' reluctance repeat. Should refer to the Jews ] to oppose it was also recorded by Mark ). Point does not mean that we simply can not —it is a argument!, 71 in A. D. 54-68 ). joined by way of parataxis ( dev to! Promote peaceful living and punish evildoers.157, the result is perhaps true, it the... In three distinct senses Biblical-Theological Perspectives on War and peace. 71 F..

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